Naoki Watanabe, Dr.
Tel: +81-11-706-5501, Fax:
Research areas: Atomic and molecular physics, Astrochemistry, Surface chemistry
I earned a doctoral degree in atomic and molecular physics from Tokyo Metropolitan
University in 1993, and worked on the photoionization processes of highly-charged
ions and molecules in gas phase using synchrotron radiation as a postdoctoral
researcher at The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN) until
1996. During 2000/2001, I was a visiting researcher at University College
London. Since becoming a permanent staff at Institute of Low Temperature
Science Hokkaido University in 1996, I have tackled surface physics and
chemistry on solid water at very low temperatures, relevant to chemical
evolution on cosmic dust.
Invited talks (after 2005)
- gDeuterium chemistry and nuclear spin conversion on grain surfaces: implication to deuterium enrichmenth,From Clouds to Protoplanetary Disks:
the Astrochemical Link,
Hans Harnack Haus, Berlin, Germany, 4-8 October (2015)
- gGrain Surface Chemistry: What Happens Without Photons and Ionsh,From Interstellar Ices to PAHs
A symposium to honor Lou Allamandolafs Contributions to the Molecular Universe,
Annapolis, USA, 13-17 September (2015)
- gRole of Tunneling in the Formation and Deuterium Enrichment of Molecules on Dust Grainsh, Astrobiology Science Conference 2015,
Chicago, USA, 15-19 June (2015)
- gExperimental Approach to Chemistry of Cosmic Dusth,First general meeting of COST Action "Our Astrochemical Histry" CM1401,
the Jaroslav Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry, Prague, Czech, 25-29 May (2015)
- gExperimental approach to nonenergetic physicochemical processes on icy grainsh, Icy Grain Chemistry for Formation of Complex Organic
Molecules: From Molecular Clouds to Protoplanetary Disks, Comets and Meteorites, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan,
5-7 March (2015)
- gWhat controls the diffusion mechanism of hydrogen atom on ice?h,Second Workshop on
Experimental Laboratory Astrophysics ,
Kauai, Hawaii, USA, 23-26 Feb., (2015)
- gNuclear spin temperatures of hydrogen and water molecules formed and trapped on iceh,Nuclear Spin Effects in Astrochemistry 2014,
Gothenburg, Sweden, 9-11 June (2014)
- gDiffusion of hydrogen atom on amorphous solid water:Thermal or tunneling?", 247th ACS National Meeting and Exposition
, Dallas, USA, 16-20 March (2014)
- gPhysics and Chemistry of Hydrogen on Cosmic Dust: Diffusion, Spin Temperatures, and Water formationh, First Workshop on
Experimental Laboratory Astrophysics ,
Kauai, Hawaii, USA, 25-27 Feb., (2013)
- gPhysicochemical Processes of Hydrogen on Ice: A Key for Chemical Evolution in Spaceh, 2nd International
Symposium on Hierarchy and Holism ,
Tokyo, Japan, 19-21 Feb., (2013)
- gSurface diffusion mechanism of atomic hydrogen and the ortho/para ratio of nascent H2 molecule on amorphous solid water at around 10 K.h, International Lorentz
Center Workshop: Dynamical Phenomena at Surfaces: The Role of Complexity ,
Leiden, The Netherlands, 26-30 Nov., (2012)
- gGrain surface processes at very low temperatures: hydrogen diffusion and tunneling reactionsh,
Gordon Research Conference, Radiation Driven Processes in Physics, Chemistry, Biology,
and Industry ,
New Hampshir, USA, 29 Jul- 3 Aug (2012)
- gSpin temperatures of hydrogen and water molecules on amorphous solid waterh,
ASTROCHEM 2012 ,
Kolkata, India, 10-13 Jul (2012)
- gHydrogen processes on dust grains: H atom diffusion and water formationh,
30th COSPAR Scientific Assembly ,
Mysore, India, 14-22 Jul (2012)
gHydrogen chemistry on cold grain surfacesh,
XVIIIth Symposium on Atomic, Cluster, and Surface Physics ,
Alpe d'Huez, France, 22-27 Jan (2012)
- gHydrogen tunneling reaction and its isotope effect at a low temperature
ice surface: Origin of deuterium enrichments in interstellar formaldehyde and methanolh,
International Conference on the Research of Chemistry and Physics of Matrix Isolated Species
(MATRIX2011), Vancouver, Canada, 11 July (2011)
- gIce surface chemistry of hydrogen atom in spaceh, 27th European Conference on Surface Science, Groningen, the Netherlands, 30 August (2010)
- gSurface processes of atomic hydrogen at very low temperatures relevant to astrochemistryh,
24th International Conference on Atomic Collisions in Solids, Krakow, Poland, 22 July (2010)
- gChemisrty of atomic hydrogen on interstellar ice grains at very low temperaturesh
Western Pacific Geophysics Meeting: Laboratory Simulations for Astrophysics, Taipei, Taiwan, June 22-25, (2010)
- gPhysicochemical processes of atomic hydrogen on amorphous solid water at very low temperaturesh
239th American Chemical Society National Meeting & Exposition - San Francisco, USA, March 21-25, (2010)
- gTunneling reactions of atomic hydrogen and molecules on amorphous solid water at very low temperaturesh,
Horiba-ISSP International Symposium on Hydrogen and Water in Condensed Matter Physics, Chiba, Japan, 12-16 October (2009)
- gNonenergetic Reactions Between Hydrogen And Molecules On Interstellar Grain Surfacesh,
XXVI International Conference on Photonic, Electronic, and Atomic Collisionsh, Michigan, USA, 22-28 July (2009)
- gIce surface reactions: its role in chemical evolution in spaceh,
ILTS International Symposium "Frontier of Low Temperature Science", Sapporo, Japan, 9-10 November (2009)
- gReactions of Hydrogen Atoms and Molecules on Amorphous Solid Water at Very Low Temperaturesh,
Gordon Research Conference; Matrix-Isolated Species, Physics & Chemistry of, Oxford, UK, 19-24 July (2009)
- gExperimental approach to grain surface reactions of hydrogen and deuterium atomsh,
International Lorentz Center Workshop: Interstellar Surfaces: From Laboratory to Models, Leiden, The Netherlands, 5-10 Oct., (2008)
- gGrain surface chemistry: fractionation routesh,
The Molecular Universe: International Meeting on Physics and Chemistry of Interstellar Medium, Arcachon, France, 5-8 May (2008)
- gLaboratory study of chemical processes on interstellar ice grainsh, Extraterrestrial ice, IUGG General Assembly 2007
, Perugia, Italy, 2-13 July (2007)
- gSimultaneous Irradiation Experiments of H2O-CO Binary Ice with UV Photons and Cold H Atomsh,
Asia-Oceania Geosciences Society Annual Meeting, Bangkok, Thailand, 3 August (2007)
- gReactions of hydrogen and deuterium atoms with CO, formaldehyde, and methanol on ice grainsh,
International Astrophysics and Astrochemistry Meeting: Molecules in Space & Laboratory, Paris, France, 14-18 May (2007)
- gFormation of Simple Organic Molecules by Hydrogenation on Grain Surfacesh,
International Astronomical Union Symposium: Astrochemistry, California, USA, 28 Augyst- 2 September. (2005)
- gFormation of deuterated methanol by surface reactions at 10 Kh, Asia-Oceania Geosciences Society Annual Meeting
, Singapore, (2005)
- gEvolution of CO molecule on dusts in dense core: formation of H2CO and CH3OHh,
The 4th International Symposium on New Trends of Physics, Recent Advances in Astrophysics and Planetary Science ?from the early universe to the Solar system-, Sapporo, Japan, (2005)
"Surface Temperature Dependence of Hydrogen Ortho-Para Conversion on Amorphous Solid Water"
H. Ueta, N. Watanabe, T. Hama, A. Kouchi
Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 253201 (2016)
"Stepwise formation of H3O+(H2O)n in an ion drift tube: Empirical effective temperature of association/dissociation reaction equilibrium in an electric field"
Y, Nakai, H. Hidaka, N. Watanabe, T. M. Kojima
J. Chem. Phys. 144, 224306 (2016)
"Statistical ortho-to-para ratio ofwater desorbed from ice at 10 kelvin"
T. Hama, A. Kouchi, and N. Watanabe
Science 351, 65 (2016)
"Signaturte of Quantum-Tunneling Diffusion of Hydrogen Atoms on Water Ice at 10 K"
K. Kuwahata, T. Hama, A. Kouchi, and N. Watanabe
Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 133201 (2015)
"Chiral glycine formation on cold interstellar grains by quantumtunneling hydrogen.deuterium substitution reactions"
Y. Oba, N. Watanabe, Y. Osamura, and A. Kouchi
Chem. Phys. Lett. 634, 53-59 (2015)
"Quantum Tunneling Observed without its Characteristic Large Kinetic Isotope Effects"
T. Hama, H. Ueta, A. Kouchi, and N. Watanabe
PNAS 112, 7438-7443 (2015)
"Quantum Tunneling Hydrogenation of Solid Benzene and Its Control via Surface Structure"
T. Hama, H. Ueta, A. Kouchi, N. Watanabe, and H. Tachikawa
The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 5, 3843-3848 (2014)
"Reaction kinetics and isotope effect of water formation by the surface reaction
of solid H2O2 with H atoms at low temperatures"
Yasuhiro Oba, Kazuya Osaka, Naoki Watanabe, Takeshi Chigai and Akira Kouchi
Faraday Discussion 168, 185-204 (2014)
"Surface Processes on Interstellar Amorphous Solid Water: Adsorption, Diffusion,
Tunneling Reactions, and Nuclear-Spin Conversion"
Tetsuya Hama, Naoki Watanabe
Chem. Rev. 113, 8783 (2013)
"Hydrogen isotopic substitution of solid methylamine through atomic surface reactions
at low temperatures: A potential contribution to the D/H ratio of methylamine
in molecular clouds",
Yasuhiro OBA,Takeshi CHIGAI, Yoshihiro OSAMURA, Naoki WATANABE, Akira KOUCH
Meteoritics & Planetary Science 1-16 (2013):DOI: 10.1111/maps.12096
hThe Mechanism of Surface Diffusion of H and D Atoms on Amorphous Solid
Water: Existence of Various Potential Sitesh,
T. Hama, K. Kuwahata, N.
Watanabe, A. Kouchi, Y. Kimura. T. Chigai, V. Pirronello
Astrophys. J. 757, 185 (2012)
gWater Formation Through a Quantum Tunneling Surface Reaction, OH
+ H2, at 10 K",
Y. Oba, N. Watanabe, T. Hama, K. Kuwahata, H. Hidaka, A. Kouchi,
Astrophys. J. 749:67 (2012)
"Spin temperature of water molecules desorbed from the surfaces of amorphous
solid water, vapor-deposited and produced from photolysis of a
CH4/O2 solid mixture", T. Hama, N. Watanabe, A. Kouchi,
and M. Yokoyama, Astrophys. J. Lett. 738, L15 (2011)
"FTIR study of ammonia formation via the successive hydrogenation of N atoms
trapped in a solid N2 matrix at low temperatures", H. Hidaka, M.
Watanabe, A. Kouchi and N. Watanabe, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.
13, 15798 (2011)
"Experimental studies of surface reactions among OH radicals that yield
H2O and CO2 at 40-60 K",Y. Oba, N. Watanabe, A. Kouchi, T.
Hama, and V. Pirronello, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13, 15792
"Surface abundance change in vacuum ultraviolet photodissociation of
CO2 and H2O mixture ices", T. Kinugawa, A. Yabushita, M.
Kawasaki, T. Hama, and N. Watanabe, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.
13, 15785 (2011)
"Translational and rotational energy measurements of desorbed water
molecules in their vibrational ground state following 157 nm irradiation of
amorphous solid water", T. Hama, M. Yokoyama, A. Yabushita, M. Kawasaki, &
N. Watanabe,Nucl. Instr. Methods B 269, 1011-1015 (2011)
"Formation of Carbonic Acid by Surface Reactions of Non-energetic OH
Radicals with CO Molecules at Low Temperatures", Y. Oba, N. Watanabe, A. Kouchi,
T. Hama, V. Pirronello, Astrophys. J. 722, 1598-1606 (2010)
"Direct measurements of hydrogen atom diffusion and the spin temperature of
nascent H2 molecule on amorphous solid water", N. Watanabe, Y.
Kimura, A. Kouchi, T. Chigai, T. Hama, & V. Pirronello, Astrophys. J. Lett.
714, L233 (2010)
"A desorption mechanism of water following vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation on
amorphous solid water at 90 K", T. Hama, M. Yokoyama, A. Yabushita, M. Kawasaki,
S. Andersson, C.M. Western, M.N.R. Ashfold, R.N. Dixon, & N. Watanabe, J.
Chem. Phys. 132, 164508 (2010)
"Direct evidence for ammonium ion formation in ice through
ultraviolet-induced acid-base reaction of NH3 with
H3O+", E-S. Moon, H. Kang, Y. Oba, N. Watanabe, & A.
Kouchi, Astrophys. J. 713, 906 (2010)
"Experimental study of CO2 formation by surface reactions of
non-energetic OH radicals with CO moleculesh, Y. Oba, N. Watanabe, A. Kouchi, T.
Hama, & V. Pirronello, Astrophys. J. Lett. 712, L174 (2010)
"Nonenergetic reactions between atomic hydrogen and molecules on
interstellar grain surfaces", N. Watanabe, A. Kouchi, H. Hidaka, Y. Oba, &
N. Miyauchi, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 194, 012044 (2009)
"Hydrogen isotope exchange and H(D) atom addition reaction of solid
formaldehyde on amorphous solid water at low temperatures", H. Hidaka, M.
Watanabe, A. Kouchi, & N. Watanabe, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 194, 132024
"Formation mechanisms of oxygen atoms in the
O(3PJ) state from the 157 nm photoirradiation of
amorphous water ice at 90 K", Tetsuya Hama, Akihiro Yabushita, Masaaki Yokoyama,
Masahiro Kawasaki, & Naoki Watanabe, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 114511
"Formation mechanisms of oxygen atoms in the
O(1D2) state from the 157 nm photoirradiation of
amorphous water ice at 90 K", Tetsuya Hama, Akihiro Yabushita, Masaaki Yokoyama,
Masahiro Kawasaki, & Naoki Watanabe,J. Chem. Phys. 131, 114510 (2009)
"Reaction routes in the
system clarified from H(D) exposure of solid formaldehyde at low temperatures",
H. Hidaka, M.Watanabe, A. Kouchi & N. Watanabe, Astrophys. J. 702, 291
"Formation of compact amorphous H2O ice by codeposition of
hydrogen atoms with oxygen molecules on grain surfaces", Y. Oba, N. Miyauchi, H.
Hidaka, T. Chigai, N. Watanabe & A. Kouchi, Astrophys. J. 701, 464 (2009)
"Translational and Rotational Energy Measurements of Photodesorbed Water
Molecules in Their Vibrational Ground State from Amorphous Solid Water", Akihiro
Yabushita, Tetsuya Hama, Masaaki Yokoyama, Masahiro Kawasaki, Stefan Andersson,
Richard N. Dixon, Michael N. R. Ashfold, & Naoki Watanabe, Astrophys. J.
Lett. 699, L80-L83, (2009)
"Ice surface reactions: A key to chemical evolution in space", Naoki
Watanabe & Akira Kouchi, Prog. Surf. Sci., 83, 439-489 (2008)
"Release of hydrogen molecules from the photodissociation of amorphous solid
water and polycrystalline ice at 157 and 193 nm", Akihiro Yabushita, Tetsuya
Hama, Daisuke Iida, Noboru Kawanaka, Masahiro Kawasaki, Naoki Watanabe, Michael
N. R. Ashfold, & Hans-Peter Loock, J. Chem. Phys., 129, 044501 (2008)
"Measurements of energy partitioning in H2 formation by
photolysis of amorphous water ice", Akihiro Yabushita, Tetsuya Hama, Daisuke
Iida, Noboru Kawanaka, Masahiro Kawasaki, Naoki Watanabe, Michael N. R. Ashfold,
& Hans-Peter Loock, Astrophys. J. Lett., 682, L69 (2008)
"Structural effects of ice grain surfaces on the hydrogenation of CO at low
temperatures",H. Hidaka, N. Miyauchi, A. Kouchi, & N. Watanabe, Chem. Phys.
Lett., 456, 36 (2008)
"Formation of hydrogen peroxide and water from the reaction of cold H atoms
with solid O2 at 10 K", N. Miyauchi, H. Hidaka, T. Chigai, A.
Nagaoka, N. Watanabe, & A. Kouchi, Chem. Phys. Lett., 456, 27 (2008)
"Laboratory Simulation of Competition between Hydrogenation and Photolysis
in the Chemical Evolution of H2O-CO Ice Mixtures"; N. Watanabe, O.
Mouri, A. Nagaoka, T. Chigai, A. Kouchi & V. Pirronell, Astrophys. J.,
668, 1001 (2007)
"Temperature, composition, and hydrogen isotope effect in the hydrogenation
of CO at 10 - 20 K", H. Hidaka, A. Kouchi & N. Watanabe, J. Chem. Phys.,
126, 204707 (2007)
"Effective rate constants for the surface reaction between solid methanol
and deuterium atoms at 10 K", A. Nagaoka, N. Watanabe, & Akira Kouchi, J.
Phys. Chem. A, 111, 3016 (2007)
"Dependence of the effective rate constants for the hydrogenation of CO on
the temperature and composition of the surface", N. Watanabe, A. Nagaoka, H.
Hidaka, T. Shiraki, T. Chigai, & A. Kouchi, Planetary and Space Science,
54, 1107 (2006)
"Formation and Deuterium Fractionation of Organic Molecules on Grain
Surfaces", Naoki Watanabe, in Astrochemistry: Recent Successes and
Current@Challenges, eds. D.C. Lis, G.A. Blake & E. Herbst, Cambridge
University Press, (2006)
"H-D substitution in interstellar solid methanol : a key route for D
enrichment", Akihiro Nagaoka, Naoki Watanabe, & Akira Kouchi, Astrophys. J.
Lett. 624, 29 (2005)
"Observation of resonance structures in 4d photoionization of
Eu+", Takao M. Kojima, Fanfu Chen, Masashi Kitajima, Tetsuo Koizumi,
Yoichi Nakai, Hitoshi Yamaoka, & Naoki Watanabe,@Journal of Electron
Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena, 144-147, 71-74 (2005)
"Hydrogenation of CO on pure solid CO and CO-H2O mixed ice",
Naoki Watanabe, Akihiro Nagaoaka, Takahiro Shiraki, & Akira Kouchi,
Astrophys. J. 616, 638 (2004)
"Conversion of H2CO to CH3OH by reactions of cold
atomichydrogen on ice surfaces below 20 K", H. Hidaka, N. Watanabe, T. Shiraki,
A. Nagaoka, and A. Kouchi, Astrophys. J.614, 1124 (2004)
"The dependence of H2CO and CH3OH formation on
temperature and thickness of H2O-CO ice during successive
hydrogenation of CO", Naoki Watanabe, Takahiro Shiraki, and Akira Kouchi,
Astrophys. J. Lett. 588, 121 (2003)
"An apparatus to determine the rovibrational distribution of molecular
hydrogen formed by the heterogeneous recombination of H atoms on cosmic dust
analogues", J.S.A. Perry, J.M. Gingell, K.A. Newson, J. To, N. Watanabe, and
S.D. Price, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1414 (2002)
"Efficient formation of formaldehyde and methanol by the addition of
hydrogen atoms to CO in H2O-CO ice at 10K", Naoki Watanabe and Akira
Kouchi, Astrophys. J. Lett. 571, 173 (2002)
"Rapid Growth of Asteroids Owing to Very Sticky Interstellar Organic
Grains", Akira Kouchi, Tatsuyuki Kudo, Hideyuki Nakano, Masahiko Arakawa, Naoki
Watanabe, Sin-iti Sirono, Michiya Higa, and Norikazu Maeno, Astrophys. J. Lett.
566, 121 (2002)
"Measurements of conversion rates of CO to CO2 in UV induced
reaction of D2O/CO amorphous ice", Naoki Watanabe and Akira Kouchi,
Astrophys. J. 567, 651-655 (2002)
"Absolute photoionization cross section measurements of Xe+ ions
in the 4d threshold energy region", Y. Itoh, A. Ito, M. Kitajima, T. Koizumi, T.
M. Kojima, H. Sakai, M. Sano and N. Watanabe, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt.
Phys.34, 3493-3499 (2001)
"Measurements of D2 yields from D2O amorphous ice by
ultraviolet irradiation at 12K", N. Watanabe, T. Horii, and A. Kouchi,
Astrophys. J. 541, 772-779 (2000)
"Photoion-yield spectra of Xe2+ in the 4d-threshold energy
region", N. Watanabe, Y. Awaya, A. Fujino, Y. Itoh, M. Kitajima, T. M. Kojima,
M. Oura , R. Okuma, M. Sano, T. Sekioka and T. Koizumi, J. Phys. B : At. Mol.
Opt. Phys.31, 4137-4141 (1998)
"Diret Determination of Partial Wave Contributions in σ* Shape Resonance of
CO Molecules", E. Shigemasa, J. Adachi, K. Soejima, N. Watanabe, A. Yagishita,
and N.A. Cherepkov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1622-1625 (1998)
"Dynamic Properties of N and O 1s-1σu* shape resonances in N2 and
CO2 molecules", A.A.Pavlychev, N.G. Forminykh, N. Watanabe, K.
Soejima, E. Shigemasa,and A. Yagishita, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3623-3626
"Photoion yield spectroscopy in the 4d photoionization of Eu+",
T.M.Kojima, M.Oura, Y.Itoh, T.Koizumi, M.Sano, T.Sekioka, N.Watanabe, H.Yamaoka,
and Y.Awaya, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.31, 1463-1468 (1998)
"4d Photionization of singly-charged ions", T.M.Kojima, M.Oura, N.Watanabe,
Y.Awaya, Y.Itoh, T.Koizumi, M.Sano, and F.Koike, Journal of the Korean Physical
Society 32, 273-279 (1998)
"Fixed-molecule 1sσg,u photoelectron
angular distributions as a probe of σg* and
σu* shape resonances of CO2", N.
Watanabe, J. Adachi, K. Soejima, E. Shigemasa, A. Yagishita, N. G. Fominykh, and
A. A.Pavlychev, Phys. Rev. Lett.78, 4910 (1997)
"Feasibility of the photoionization of multi-chrged ions and first test ofa
PHOton Beam Ion Source (PHOBIS) with RIKEN EBIS (REBIS)", S.D.Kravis,
N.Watanabe, Y.Awaya, M.Kimura, T.Kojima, K.Okuno, and M.Oura, Physica Scripta
T71 121-126 (1997)
"Recoil-ion momentum distribution of single-electron capture to the ground
and excited states in 0.5-1MeV/u B4+,5+ + He collisions", T.Kambara,
A.Igarashi, N.Watanabe, Y.Nakai, T.M.Kojima, and Y.Awaya, J. Phys. B : At. Mol.
Opt. Phys. 30, 1251 (1997)
"4d Photoionization of Multiply Charged Xeq+ (q=1-3) Ions", T.
Koizumi, Y. Awaya, A. Fujino, T. Itoh, M. Kitajima, T.M. Kojima, M. Oura M.
Sano, T. Sekioka, N. Watanabe, and F. Koike, Physica Scripta T73, 131-132
"Reaction of carbon-silicon binary cluster", Y.Negishi, N.Watanabe,
H.Shiromaru, Y.Achiba, and N.Kobayashi, Surf. Rev. Lett. 3, 661-665
"Photoionization of 4d-electrons in singly-charged Xe ions", M.Sano, Y.Itoh,
T.Koizumi, T.M.Kojima, S.D.Kravis, M.Oura, T.Sekioka, N.Watanabe, Y.Awaya, and
F.Koike, J. Phys. B 29, 5305-5313 (1996)
"4d photoionization of singly-charged Xe, Ba, and Eu ions", T.Koizumi,
Y.Awaya, M.Gonno, Y.Itoh, M.Kiura, T.M.Kojima, S.Kravis, M.Oura, M.Sano, Naoki
Watanabe, H.Yamaoka, and F.Koike, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom.
79, 289-292 (1996)
"Single ionization of He by low-velocity protons and C6+: Ejected
electron momentum distributions", Kravis SD, Abdallah M, Cocke CL, Lin CD,
Stockli M, Walch B, Wang YD, Olson RE, Rodriguez VD, Wu W, Pieksma M, Watanabe
N, Phys. Rev. A 54, 1394-1403 (1996)